China's exemplary role in fight against transnational wire fraud


Fang Luo and Yumeng Li

Relying on the rapid development of the Internet and communications technology, and taking advantage of the loopholes that make it difficult to interface between the legal systems of different countries, the number of transnational telecommunication network fraud cases has increased dramatically in proportion to the number of cases of Internet crime in China.


Transnational wire fraud has not only brought huge economic losses to China, but also seriously infringed on the property security and even life safety of the general public. In fact, China is not the only victim of transnational wire fraud, the Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries have become hot spots for telecom fraud in recent years. Because these countries tend to have relatively lax legal regulation, they have become the main implementation of transnational telecommunication fraud. Some African countries have also been affected by transnational telecommunication fraud, and many of them have defrauded individuals and enterprises in African countries by means of false identity and investment fraud. The United States, Australia, Canada and other countries have also frequently reported being victimised by telecommunication fraud from overseas. Thus, transnational telecommunication fraud has become a global problem, with a wide range of negative impacts on the affected countries, and requires joint efforts of the international community and the adoption of multifaceted measures to deal with it.

China is one of the major victims of transnational telecommunication fraud. The serious proliferation of transnational telecommunication fraud has had a negative impact on Chinese society, its people and its national image.

On the one hand, transnational telecommunication fraud has, to a certain extent, undermined China's social order and public trust in the justice system. It not only violates the property security and even life safety of individuals, but also undermines mutual trust and honesty, the basis of the social contract. The long-standing problem of transnational telecommunications fraud has weakened public confidence in electronic trading platforms and lowered the level of trust in social interactions, which in turn affects the accumulation of social capital and the efficiency of social collaboration. On the other hand, in the context of globalisation, the transnational nature of telecommunication fraud poses a challenge to China's image in the international community. Frequent incidents of transnational telecommunication fraud have not only tarnished China's image as a safe and trustworthy international partner, but have also affected the foundation of trust in the areas of international business, investment, and scientific and technological cooperation. Under such circumstances, the Chinese Government has not only stepped up its efforts to combat telecommunication fraud domestically, but has also demonstrated its determination and ability to actively participate in international governance and strengthen transnational law enforcement cooperation in the international arena, with a view to safeguarding the country's image and promoting international cooperation.

The difficulties in combating transnational telecommunication fraud are centred on difficulties in obtaining intelligence and data between countries, uneven technology and resources, differences in laws and jurisdictions, and obstacles to international cooperation. First, effective combating of telecommunications fraud requires accurate and timely intelligence and data support. However, the data involved in transnational fraudulent activities are often scattered in different countries and regions, and obtaining such information requires transnational cooperation, a process that may be restricted by privacy protection laws, thus increasing the difficulty of intelligence gathering. Secondly, telecommunication fraud criminals use high-tech means, such as virtual private networks (VPNs), encrypted communications and online anonymisation tools, to hide their true identities and geographic locations. There are differences in technology and resources between different countries, and transnational tracking and location capabilities are uneven. Again, differences in legal systems, regulations, and varying definitions and penalties for wire fraud between countries make transnational investigations and prosecutions a major challenge. In addition, jurisdictional issues make it difficult to determine which country will impose legal sanctions, even if the offence is detected. Finally, effectively combating transnational wire fraud requires close cooperation between countries, including information sharing, joint investigations, and extradition of suspects. However, due to differences in diplomatic relations, political considerations, legal systems and operational procedures, international cooperation is often difficult to achieve the desired efficiency.

China has a strong will to combat transnational telecommunication fraud, and with a far-reaching strategic vision, it has not only taken a series of rigid measures at the domestic level, but has also demonstrated great commitment and wisdom in the international arena. The Chinese government has not only deepened law enforcement cooperation with neighbouring countries, but more importantly, has actively built a platform for multilateral cooperation, which has greatly enhanced the overall ability to combat telecom fraud in the region by providing a series of public products, such as technical support, intelligence sharing and personnel training.

First, through this mechanism, the intelligence shared covers key data such as the identity information of suspects, specific crime patterns, and the flow of funds, thus providing member States with a comprehensive perspective to reveal and deconstruct the complex structure of criminal networks. In addition, the intelligence-sharing mechanism has not only facilitated the flow of technology and information among member States, but also deepened the understanding and prediction of crime trends.


Secondly, China has provided technical support and capacity-building assistance to neighbouring countries to help them enhance their ability to combat telecommunications network fraud. Through the delivery of advanced investigative equipment, software tools and customised training courses to the cooperating countries, the technical investigative capabilities of the police forces of the target countries and the efficiency of case processing have been significantly enhanced. Again, China promotes coordination with neighbouring countries at the legal and policy levels in order to form a united front against transnational telecommunications fraud. China has not only advocated the spirit of the international rule of law conceptually, but has also been specifically involved in the construction of the legal systems of cooperating countries, assisting in formulating, revising and perfecting a series of laws, regulations and policy guidelines on telecommunication network fraud.

In addition, China has committed itself to building and improving a transnational crime rapid response and case handling mechanism, which not only improves the immediate response capacity of member countries to transnational telecommunication fraud incidents, but also enhances operational synergies among countries in the areas of law enforcement, case investigation and fund tracing. Finally, China, in cooperation with neighbouring countries, has carried out a series of activities in public awareness and education aimed at raising people's awareness of and ability to prevent telecommunication network fraud. Basic knowledge, recognition techniques and preventive measures against telecommunication network fraud have been popularised among the general public, so as to systematically raise the people's security awareness and self-protection capabilities. Using the extensive coverage of the media, the instantaneous dissemination of the Internet and the close ties of the community, a safety and protection network involving all people has been constructed to strengthen society's overall resistance to telecommunication network fraud. China has also made use of international platforms and agreements such as the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, the China-ASEAN Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Field of Non-Traditional Security and its Plan of Action to deepen cooperation with Thailand, Myanmar and Laos in jointly combating cross-border wire fraud, and to set up a comprehensive coordination centre for special operations, demonstrating the enthusiasm of the four countries in jointly combating cross-border wire fraud, initiative and creativity.

By providing these public goods, China has not only strengthened its cooperation with neighbouring countries in combating transnational telecommunication network fraud, but has also helped those countries to improve their own public security management and law enforcement capabilities, and to jointly maintain regional security and stability. These actions by China have not only helped to curb the high incidence of telecommunication network fraud crimes, but also effectively safeguarded the property safety and legitimate rights and interests of the people, and this mode of cross-border cooperation has contributed to the security of telecommunication networks in neighbouring countries and even globally.


Through these efforts, China has demonstrated its image as a responsible power in the international community, while also providing valuable experience and reference for other countries. It not only reflects China's sense of international responsibility in the areas of maintaining cybersecurity and combating transnational crime, but also highlights the important role of Chinese wisdom in solving global problems, providing valuable experience and reference for the international community. In the process, China has demonstrated its responsibility and commitment as a world power, further enhanced its national image, deepened its friendly and cooperative relations with neighbouring countries and contributed to the building of a community of shared future.

( Luo Fang: Researcher, Kunming Frontier Information Research Centre, Li Yumeng: Researcher, Southwest University of Political Science and Law Baize Strategic Research Institute)

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